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发表时间:2019-07-22 16:44

第三课   问题类型之主旨题、目的题、推论题


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Main Idea

主旨题

这类考题主要包含两种问法:总结Main Topic (Main Idea)和归纳Headline (Title)。

典型问法:

1.    What is the main topic of the article?

2.    What is the passage mainly about\mostly about?

3.    Which would be the most suitable\appropriate headline for the article?

4.    What would be the best title for this story?

5.    Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage

答题要旨:

1.    首先排除文中未提及的信息和细节性的信息选出能够概括文章主要观点的选项。

2.    主旨题的正确答案会综合整篇文章的主要观点,所以任何涉及细节的选项都不能选,也不会与文中任何一句话完全雷同。

3.    要理清文章的结构和框架,了解作者是如何循序渐进地叙述故事、传达信息的。

4.    抓住每段的中心句,或相对重要的信息,对解答此类问题至关重要。

例题:

   “People say that red and yellow and orange are ‘warm’ colors, and that blue and green are ‘cool’ colors. But if you touch a red wool sweater, it doesn’t feel warmer than a blue wool sweater. And if you touch a green leaf, it doesn’t feel cooler than a yellow leaf. Then why do people call certain colors ‘cool’ and other colors ‘warm’?”

What would be the best title for the passage?

(A) Warm colors and cool colors

(B) The most popular color

(C) Effects of colors

(D) How to classify different colors

解析:

    整段都是围绕着暖色和冷色展开的,既介绍了暖色和冷色各包括哪些颜色,也引出了区分冷暖色的原因,所以选项A “Warm colors and cool colors”是文章的主题,可以当作题目。

    文章中并未比较哪种颜色更受欢迎,所以选项B “The most popular color”不正确

    选项C “Effects of colors”只在第2句和第3句进行了讨论;

    选项D“How to classify different colors”如何分辨不同的颜色,也不足以归纳整篇文章的主题。

Purpose

目的题

    目的题作为小csgo雷火电竞阅读六大题型之一,又可以细分为细节目的题和文章目的题。

典型问法:

1.    What is the purpose of the ...?

2.    Why did he write the letter?

3.    Why does the author mention...?

细节目的题:又称举例目的题,理解作者在文章提到某句话或某个观点的目的或作用。

例题:

    ...Don't take it personally. Just smile, wave, wish them well, and move on. Don't take their garbage and spread it to other people at work, at home, or on the streets...

Why does the author mention "Don't take it personally. Just smile, wave, wish them well, and move on."?

A. Because we don't know the people.

B. Because our taxi ran into the black car.

C. Because many people need to dump their garbage.

D. Because we shouldn't take other's garbage and spread it to other people.

文章目的题:需要考生理解写整篇文章的目的。

例题:

The purpose of this camp is to provide the player with a background of the fundamentals of fast pitch softball in the areas of pitching, catching, hitting and fielding...

Why does the school hold the Softball Camp?

A. To make the students attend the softball club

B. To teach students some fundamentals of football

C. To encourage students to do more exercises

D. To explain why softball is popular among students

Inference

推论题

    此类考题主要考查考生对文章中的一个观点或立场的理解程度。作者的这种观点、态度或立场是不会在文章中明确阐明的,而是通过一些句子或段落暗示。

典型问法

1.    What can be inferred from...?

2.    Which of the following can be inferred about...?

3.    The author of the passage implies that...

答题要旨

1.    解答推论题时,考生不仅需要理解相关句子的字面意思,还须清楚这些句子之间的逻辑性暗示。比如说,如果文章中陈述了某一事件的结果,那么很有可能需要考生推论原因。

2.    考生做题时,首先应该排除选项中与文章观点冲突的错误选项。

3.    推论题不可能在文章中找到现成的答案,只能靠自己的推论和总结。所以选项中如果出现完全从文中照搬的句子,也可以排除。

4.    选择后,考生应能够明确指出相关信息在原文中出现的位置,从而验证自己的答案。

例题:

    The nineteenth century brought with it a burst of new discoveries and inventions that revolutionized the candle industry and made lighting available to all. In the early-to-mid-nineteenth century, process was developed to refine tallow (fat from animals) with alkai and sulfuric acid. The result was a product called stearin. Stearin is harder and burns longer than unrefined tallow. This breakthrough meant that is was possible to make tallow candles that would not produce the usual smoke and disgusting smell. Stearins were also derived from palm oils, so vegetable waxes as well as animal fats could be used to make candles.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about candles before the nineteenth century?

A. They did not smoke when they were burned.

B. They produced a pleasant smell as they burned.

C. They were not available to all.

D. They contained sulfuric acid.

解析:

    从第一句话“ The nineteenth century brought with it a burst of new discoveries and inventions that revolutionized the candle industry and made lighting available to all“中,我们可以得知19世纪的新发现和新发明让人们用上了照明工具。

    而整段文字中只提到了一种照明方式,那就是蜡烛candle.由此可知,在19世纪以前,这样的蜡烛是不存在的,所以答案为选项C。

    选项A和B在文中的陈述”the usual smoke“和”Disgusting smell“相冲突,可以排除。由于sulfuric acid 这种物质是在19世纪才用于制造stearin的,所以选项D也可以排除。



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